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Fred Shuttlesworth was particularly critical, since he was sceptical about the good faith of Birmingham's power structure from his experience in dealing with them. Main articles: Under a United States Supreme Court ruling interpreting the Americans with Disabilities Act ADA , states must place qualified individuals with disabilities in community settings rather than in institutions, whenever community placement is appropriate, and when the placement can be reasonably accommodated, taking into account factors such as available state resources and needs of others with disabilities. Retrieved March 24, Alstha vel Elsta After considerable parliamentary maneuvering and 54 days of filibuster on the floor of the United States Senate, President Johnson got a bill through the Congress. Article 16 — Recognition as a person under the law.

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Setting it at 18 would be sketch comedy material. But I would not put it past our American society mentality one bit. We are gradually wimpifying our kids. The kids of today have more restrictions placed on them than the kids of yesterday and the kids of tomorrow will have even more restrictions placed on them than the kids of today!

Half the stories Lenore links to sound like they come from the Onion anyway. My 15 year old has his learners permit and has a job at a local restaurant. There are still some airlines e. Not that I approve at all of this policy, but I bet the lawyers were the ones who said for them to do this. Not at all. The flight attendants generally do not escort the minors through the airport unless it is to a connecting flight.

However, as James said, it is a bit like insurance. It requires the airline to care for the child if the flight is disrupted for some reason. Flights get cancelled and diverted all the time. Sometimes for multiple days. I know that my 10 year old could not emotionally handle being snowed in in an airport alone in a strange city where she knows nobody for 2 days.

My biggest complaint about this is really: Given a credit card, I totally could have survived in a airport for days by myself. I would have been bored out of my mind, but not the slightest bit scared. My anxious kid not so much. Charge a small unaccompanied minor fee to take care of kids should the flight be disrupted, but otherwise leave them the heck alone.

At the youngest ages or at some of the larger airports, they may need help with connecting flights that could be incorporated for an extra fee. My Gt-gt-grandmother came to the US alone at the age of We looked into a trip for spring break to Florida to visit relatives and wanted to send our 3 kids early as they have the week off and join up with them later in the week.

Logically, I thought the 14 yo would just lead his younger sisters to board and depart the plane but the policies and fees for unaccompanied minors is bat-shit crazy. I see more elderly folks who need assistance in airports than children. That said, your grandmother got on a ship that was arrange for her and a train that was arranged for her.

I would guess that there was also some form of accommodation arranged if she needed to stay in, what I assume was NYC, before boarding her train. That would have all been arranged by whomever hired her as an indentured servant before she left where ever it is she left.

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She was at the very least intercepted at various points where she could possibly get lost as otherwise there is a large risk that she would get to NYC and run off without ever fulfilling her indentured servitude.

Louis for 3 days with no ability to leave, no ability to rent a hotel room, and only enough money to buy a single meal in the airport McDs. A flight cancelled Christmas Eve, as many of them were this year due to weather, when everyone is grumpy, harried and trying to get to where they want to spend Christmas, not so much.

Is this something my child could survive? She likely would not die even if she truly got no food for 3 days. Do I think this is some necessary life skill to be obtained at 13? Depends largely on the flight. This is totally for money. Was there even an incident that prompted this policy change?

If there is a parent that wants this option, fine. He is with an entire team and I assume adult coaches. If something were to happen, he would have a large number of other people to make arrangements for him. If they were stranded, an adult could book hotel rooms for them all and purchase meals and make arrangements to get another bus,.

I have absolutely no doubt that my child at 10 could handle the logistics of a flight that went largely as planned. Even a short delay could be managed. Could she handle being stuck overnight? I am glad that I live on another continent. Some weeks ago, I travelled from Italy to Austria, my home country, by train.

Near me sat a 13 or 14 year old girl from another Austrian town who had visited her aunt who had been on holiday in a seaside resort in Italy. Did that girl have any problems or could she not handly the situation during that 5 hours train ride? Her biggest concern was about the weather.

In Italy it was warm and sunny, in Austria it was pouring and she was wearing only light summer clothing. But as her house was near the station and she knew her parents were going to pick her up there by car, even that was not a real problem. I thought the US would be more customer friendly. I think it is rather strange for hotels not to accept people without credit cards as customers.

And I also thought, that in the US almost every adult has a credit card. So in my thoughts, it would have been logical to give cards linked with the account of their parents to children. Some people are imagining a single-leg trip… you get on the plane at point A, get off the plane at point B, done.

Others are imagining a multi-leg trip… you get on the plane at point A, change planes at point B, arrive at point C, done. Finally, some are seeing horrible flashbacks of that time when your travel day went like arrive at the airport, the airline says you have no reservation. You can get on a plane to point Q, but there is a weather delay, and they are unsure when if!

Meanwhile, your bags get put on the flight you originally intended to board. The plane takes off for Q, and arrives ten minutes earlier than expected, but two hours later than scheduled because of a weather delay at A. Meanwhile, your connecting flight to point B left on schedule, 2 minutes ago. Meanwhile, the airline, having noticed that you did not board your original plane at A, has taken your bags off at M, and put them on a plane bound back to A.

The airport at Q is now closed for the night, with no flights scheduled until 6: There are no taxis, because the last flight was scheduled to arrive over an hour ago. There is no place to obtain food, and even the bathrooms are locked up for the night. Even if that is not how you ultimately pay, they need one on record to charge in case of damages, etc.

Probably not even a 15, 16 or 17 year old. But, no, my child is not getting a card linked to my account. And certainly not at 13 or And, again, some of this is just expectations. If my child is going to Europe for the summer, I would probably make the effort to get her a credit card so that she has something in case of emergencies.

And she would also have the ability to pay for a hotel if caught somewhere with whatever money she is using to backpack around Europe. James — The problem is that those trips do occur and not infrequently. Issues with flights are not uncommon.

Of the 3 round trip flights I took this year, 2 had legs that were cancelled due to weather. For one we made it out later the same night. The other required an additional 24 hours in the departure city. Planes that had to be diverted due weather, some of which required spending the night.

Have twice been diverted to another city and then had to be bused to my original arrival place from hours away. Have had countless missed connections, some of which required spending the night in the connecting city. My luggage has been lost a half a dozen times at least mine never was sent to a remote village in Africa where planes only go once a week as happened to a friend who was not even flying to Africa.

None of this dire, but all a hassle to deal with. Good grief! The next generation of adults is going to be worthless. At age 12 a french boy scout orchestrated the first war crimes trial of a lutwaffe pilot who straffed civilians. This occurred in may of Something else worth noting on this issue of the minimum age for flying without being accompanied by an adult.

That means that they have right of way over any powered aircraft. The reasons should be obvious: Nor can they generally gain altitude at will to avoid another aircraft at their altitude. So, your 14 year old child can legally pilot an airplane without an engine an aircraft in distress , either alone or with one passenger. But your 14 year old child cannot fly as a passenger on United Airlines without an accompanying adult.

They should change the picture on that web page to a year-old teenager giving the United Airlines employee an eyeroll. Up on the airplane Danger can come to me! So I need supervision By airport security [By airport security]. Because up the airplane [up on the airplane] Danger can come to me, [Danger can come] So I need supervision By airport security [By airport security].

That little spot on the ground is my home town Where I live under lock and key! Have we gone insane [Back in my hometown? But have we gone insane! I used to live across the street from a lovely woman, 98 years young. She told me stories of how when she was 14, and she and her 15 year old husband drove a model T across the country, from Baltimore to California to seek their fortunes.

They are now trying to push for children under 2 to have to have a car seat and thus buy another seat. Yet tell me one time a car seat ever saved a child in an airplane??? Early in that period, I was under the age of 12, and both of us were required to travel as unaccompanied minors.

Later in that period, I was over 12, though my brother was under twelve. Neither of us was unaccompanied any more, because I was over Oh, what a joyous day it was when I passed 12 and we were finally rid of those annoying accompanying flight attendants. All they did was slow us down. Regardless, given how often we traveled, it was inevitable that things would go wrong.

We were stuck for a day in Amsterdam. We had luggage get lost multiple times Barcelona was the worst for luggage transfers. We arrived to find an airport under construction, and that our connecting flight had been moved to another airport, but no arrangements made to get passengers from one to the other. We dealt with snooty French check-in agents who know only one phrase: And on and on.

Airport hotels will give a kid a room, with cash and a passport. Taxis or busses or trains can get you from one place to the next. Agree with what others have been saying: For the most part, kids that age flying alone are,likely to be seasoned travelers so they can handle themselves source: When I was a kid, the airlines offered gate escorts for minors as an additional service, but my brother and I only had one for a single cross-country flight, and asked my mom not to bother the next time.

This was in I was 12, my brother was 10, and we lived with my mother and stepfather in Colorado but visited my father on the East Coast about once a month. We spent about 2 years navigating airports and generally becoming experts. On a solo cross-country trip with a connecting flight, my brother who was 11 at the time got stuck in Chicago because of a snow storm that grounded the planes.

My mother had the airline comp him a hotel room and she paid for a car to take him to the hotel and back to the airport the next day. He thought that it was the coolest thing ever. Airports are probably among the safest places on earth! That might almost start to seem worth it. I saw this and just wanted to say something nice about Alaska Airlines.

Our 12 year old took a 4. Alaska gave him the movie player and lunch at no charge. I thought that was quite smart and considerate of them to do so. December 29, Fly the infantilizing skies of United! Again with the Fever Thingy? Art December 29, at Meh, sounds like a cash grab more than anything. BL December 29, at Age Brooke December 29, at Uncle Ben grew up to be a professional violinist.

Warren December 29, at Marijana December 29, at Anyone noticed Latchkey definition on Wiki? Wish someone would correct it someone with better English than mine. Free range greetings from East Europe. Backroads December 29, at Money grab. Caiti December 29, at That Wiki article could be edited by someone adding something along the lines of: It is so sad the way they are dumbing down young adults with these age discriminatory policies.

Gina December 29, at Rick December 29, at Matthew December 29, at 1: En Passant December 29, at 1: Warren December 29, at 1: A Reader December 29, at 1: Stacey December 29, at 1: Tim December 29, at 1: Tara December 29, at 1: This requirement is ridiculous! Mike December 29, at 2: James Pollock December 29, at 2: Dana B December 29, at 2: Wenting December 29, at 2: Donna December 29, at 2: James Pollock December 29, at 3: When you buy a UM ticket, the airline takes on more liability, not less.

Donald December 29, at 3: Coasterfreak December 29, at 5: This is a money grab. Nothing else. Donald December 29, at 5: Tsu Dho Nimh December 29, at 6: Barry Lederman December 29, at 7: Warren December 29, at 9: BDK December 29, at Emily December 29, at John December 30, at Emily December 30, at Emily December 30, at 1: James Pollock December 30, at 3: John December 30, at 4: Emily Oh I agree Emily.

BL December 30, at 7: Vicki December 30, at 9: CrazyCatLady December 30, at Donna December 30, at BL December 30, at She got there, presumably by train. BL — 13 year olds who conquer the globe are still a rarity. AmyO December 30, at 1: She had not been used to that for a year, and that is what she thought. After that, he woke up and tried speaking to her once, twice, and a third time.

No answer could he get from her. Then he began thinking. He then spoke to his wife: Between me and God, I haven't slept with you for a year since last night, nor have I laid down [here]. As for Pwyll Pendevic, he came to his country and his lands and began asking the noblemen of his realm how his lordship had been for the last year, compared to what it had been before.

Here is the story, even as it was. And the lordship we had that year, I'm sure you won't take that away from us. And thenceforth a strong friendship began between them, each giving the other horses, greyhounds, hawks and any other kind of treasure he thought might me pleasing to the mind of his fellow [21].

And because of his sorjourn that year in Annwfn, and his kingship [which had been] so prosperous there, and the forging of two kingdoms into one through his resilience and his fighting-power: Once upon a time [22] he [i. Pwyll] was in Arbeth, a chief court of his, with a feast laid out and great hosts of men all around him. After the first course, Pwyll got up to go for a walk and made for the top of a mound which was above the court and was called Gorsedd Arbeth.

A marvel, however, I would be glad to see. I will go,' he continued ' and sit on this mound'. And he went to sit on the mound [24]. As they were seated, they could see a woman on a large stately pale-white horse, a garment of shining gold brocaded silk about her, making her way along the track which went past the mound.

The horse had an even, leisurely pace [25] ; and she was drawing level with the mound it seemed to all those who were watching her [26]. One [man] got up, but when he came onto the road to meet her, she had [already] gone past. He went after her as fast as he was able to on foot, but the greater was his speed, the further away from him she became [28]. When he could see that following her was to no avail, he returned to Pwyll and said to him [the following words]: He took the horse and off he went.

He got to smooth open country, and he began to set his spurs to the horse; but the more he struck the horse, the further away she became. Yet she still had the same pace with which she had begun. His horse flagged, and when he noticed his horse's slackening pace, he returned to Pwyll.

I haven't known any horse in the land faster than this one, but [even on this] following her was to no avail. Let us go [back] to the court. The next day they arose and that [too] passed until it was the hour to eat. After the first meal [Pwyll spoke thus]: They [then] made for the mound with the horse. And, as they were sitting, they could see the woman on the same horse, with the same apparel about her, coming up the same road.

Be ready, boy, to find out who she is. Thereupon, the lady on horseback drew level. The boy then mounted his horse, but before he had [even] settled in the saddle, she had already gone past, and there was a distance between them. Her pace was no different from the day before. He [too] put his pace at an amble, supposing as he did that however slowly his horse went, he might be able to overtake her.

But it was no use. He loosed his at the reins, but got no nearer than if he had been on foot; and the more he beat his horse, the further away she became. Since he saw it was useless [trying] to follow her, he returned, coming back to Pwyll. But between me and God,' he continued 'she has a message for someone on this plain, if obstinacy would [only] allow her to say it.

Let us go back to the court. They came [back] to the court and spent the evening in song and carousel as they pleased. The next morning, they passed the day until it was the hour to eat. When they had finished the meal Pwyll announced 'Where is that group of us that went up on the mound yesterday and the day before? And you' he said to his stable-boy 'saddle my horse well and bring him to the path, and bring my spurs with you.

They came to sit on the mound. They had hardly been there any time before they caught sight of the lady on horseback, coming along the same path, with the same apparel, at the same pace. Pwyll mounted his horse, and no sooner than he had done so, she had passed him by.

He turned after her, and let his lively horse prance at its own pace. He guessed that he would catch her up on the second or third bound. He spurred on the horse as fast as it could go. But he saw it was useless following her [in this way]. Then Pwyll spoke: The maiden stopped and waited and drew aside the part of her headdress that was there to cover her face.

She looked him in the eye, initiating conversation with him. And where are you going? And he realized at that moment the faces of every woman and girl he had ever seen were dull in comparison to her face. And will you tell me who you are? For my part, I do not wish for the love of any man, because of the love I have for you. I still do not want this [other] man, unless you refuse me.

And it is to find out your answer to this that I have come. I will be on my way. They parted and he went back to his household and his host. Whatever questions they might have had about the maiden, he would change the subject [37]. After that they passed the year until the [appointed] time, and [then] Pwyll equipped himself as one of a hundred riders. He went over to the court of Hyfaidd Hen.

He came to the court and there was joy at his arrival [38]. He was met by a throng and a jubilation, and great preparations were made for his arrival: The hall was prepared, and they went to the tables. This is how they sat: Hyfaidd Hen on one side of Pwyll with Rhiannon on the other, and then everyone according to his rank.

And they began to eat, drink and converse. As they started [their] after-dinner drinking [40] , they saw coming inside an auburn-haired youth: And when he came to the upper part of the hall he greeted Pwyll and his companions. And it is to ask for her, [along] with the provisions and victuals which are here that I have come.

Pwyll fell silent, for there was not an answer he could give. And since you have said the words that you said, you have to give me to him to prevent dishonour. I could never on my life [do] what you say. He is asking for the feast and the provisions and the victuals. But those are not under your sovereignty.

I myself gave the feast to the household and the hosts, and that will be your answer regarding that. At the end of the year you will be in the orchard up there, with this bag and a hundred horsemen. When he is in the midst of his merriment and carousal, you come inside wearing shabby clothes and with the bag in your hand. You will say it will not unless a noble lord over many lands should arise and press his feet down on the food in the bag and say "Enough has been placed herein.

And when he goes in, turn the bag over until he goes head over [heels] into the bag. Then tie a knot on the strings of the bag. And let there be a good hunting-horn about your neck. When he is tied up in the bag, give a blast on the horn - it can be a signal from you to your men - when they hear the sound of the horn, they can descend on the court.

I cannot all them to be give away to anyone [else]. One year from now, however, a feast will be provided in this court for you, my friend, to [celebrate] sleeping with me. Gwawl went [back] over to his land. Pwyll, for his part, came [back] to Dyfed. Each passed the rest of the year until it was time for the feast at the Court of Hyfaidd Hen.

Gwawl son of Clud came along to the feast had been prepared for him, and made for the court, and there was joy at his arrival. As for Pwyll, the Head of Annwfn, he came to the orchard in a group of a hundred horsemen, just as Rhiannon had commanded him to do, the bag with him. Pwyll had clothed himself in dull rags and put big rag-boots on his feet. I am before you with a request [49].

This is the boon I ask: Bring him food! A large number of courtiers got up and began to fill the bag. Yet however much they threw in, it was no more full than before. He got up and put his two feet into the bag. Pwyll turned the bag so that Gwawl was head [over heels] in the bag and quickly closing the bag he tied up the strings in a knot and gave a blast on his horn.

At that, his household fell on the court and seized everyone from the host that had come with Gwawl, and took each one prisoner. As each one of his host came inside, each one of them would strike a blow to the bag, and ask: They played a game like this: In such a way they made sport of the bag. As each one came, he would ask 'What game are you playing there? And that was the first time Badger in the Bag was ever played.

It is legitimate that you should hear him - that is not a fitting way for [this man] to die. Leave him there to give to all on your behalf,' she continued 'and take guarantees against his making a claim or pursuing revenge. That will be punishment enough for him. Thereupon he was released from the bag and his top men set free.

With your leave, I will be on my way. I will leave some noblemen in my stead who will answer to all who petition you. And Gwawl went back to his country. The hall was then set out for Pwyll, his host, and the host of the court. They came to sit at the tables: They ate and drank, and when the time was right they went off to sleep.

Pwyll and Rhiannon went to the chamber, and passed the night in pleasure and satisfaction. The following morning, in the young of the day, Rhiannon said to Pwyll: Then Pwyll got up and ordered silence for the asking of any petitions the minstrels might have, and granted the satisfaction of each according of them to his will and his fancy [56]. And that was done.

The feast was consumed and nothing denied while it endured. When the feast was drawing to a close, Pwyll said to Hyfaidd 'Lord, with your blessing, I will be setting off back to Dyfed tomorrow. Arrange a time after which Rhiannon might follow. So they set off for Dyfed, and made for the court of Arbeth, and a feast was laid out for them there. A throng of noblemen and noble women from [throughout] the land and the nation came to them.

Neither man nor woman of them left Rhiannon without bestowing upon them [some kind of] special gift: They ruled the country prosperously for [the rest of] that year and the next. In the third year the men of the land began to feel a heaviness of spirit, seeing a man [i. Pwyll] whom they loved so much as their lord and foster-brother [59] being without an heir.

The place where they convened was the Precelli [mountains] [60] in Dyfed. Take another wife instead, from whom an heir might be born. You will not last for ever,' they continued 'and wish as you may to remain being like this, we will not allow you.

Give me respite until the end of the year. We will arrange an appointment to come re-convene a year from this time, and I will place myself before your judgement. Before the end of that time arrived, a boy was born to him - and it was in Arbeth that he was born. On the night of his birth, [some] women were brought in to keep watch over the boy and his mother.

Now the women dropped off to sleep, along with the mother, and the son of Rhiannon. Six was the number of the women who had been brought to that chamber. They kept watch for part of the night but before the midnight hour every one of them had fallen asleep - only to wake up again towards the cock-crow. As soon as they awoke, they started searching the place where they had left the boy: Let's kill one of the puppies, and smear some of its blood on the face of Rhiannon, and each of her hands and leave its bones in front of her, and accuse her of killing the baby herself [66].

Against the word of the six of us, her word alone will not stand [67]. We're nothing but bruises and wounds from struggling with you: It was you that destroyed the baby yourself! Don't ask for him from us. God who knows all things knows that this is accusation of me is not true. And if you are afraid, by my confession to God, I will protect you.

At that Pwyll Pen Annwfn woke up, with the household and the hostings: The news spread out round the country, and every one of the noblemen of the land heard [all about] it. The noblemen of the land then converged - petitioning him to cast aside his wife for such a terrible atrocity as the one which she had committed. I know her to have been with child, and I will not cast her aside [68].

If she has committed a crime, let her take penance in return. For her part, Rhiannon summoned her sages and wise men [69] and, once she had decided that it was fairer to take penance than embroil herself in a quarrel with the women [70] , she [went about] taking her penance. The penance that was put on her was as follows: There was a mounting-block by the gate. She had to sit beside it every day telling anyone coming by the whole story of those she supposed did not know it and offering whichever guest and stranger would allow themselves to carried, to be carried on her back to the court.

But only rarely did anyone allow the carrying. In this way she passed the next part of the year. At that time there was a lord, Teyrnon Twryf Liant, ruling over Gwent-Ys-Coed [72] , and the best man in the world was he [73]. At his house [he had] a mare: He had the mare brought into the house, and he equipped himself with weapons and began his watch for the night.

As night was falling, the mare gave birth to a large, perfectly-formed foal: Teyrnon got up to admire the sturdiness of the foal. As he was doing this, he could hear a mighty commotion - and, following this commotion there was an enormous claw [reaching] through the window, seizing the colt by its mane.

Teyrnon drew a sword and severed the arm from the elbow down - so that the bulk of the arm, together with the colt, [fell off] inside next to him. At that he heard a commotion and a scream at the same time. He went out of the door in the direction of the commotion. He could not identify [the source of] the commotion as the night was so dark. But he kept up its trail and its pursuit.

He remembered that he had left the door open, [so] he returned. And by the door - lo and behold! He picked up the boy, and [noticed] he was strong for his age. He fastened the door, and made for the chamber where his wife was [sleeping]. That which you have never had. I could get the other women on my side, and say that I had been pregnant. And so it was done. They had the boy baptized, with the baptism that they used to practice in those days [79].

The name he was given was Gwri Golden-Hair [80] - for the hair that was on his head was as yellow as gold. The child was brought up in the court until he was one year old. And before [the end of] his [first] year he was walking steadily, and was stronger than a three-year old boy of the greatest growth and size.

And [after] he had been raised for another year, he was as sturdy as a six-year old boy. Before the end of the fourth year, he was striking deals with the stable lads to be allowed to lead [the horses] down to water. For the night we got the boy, the foal was born and saved.

The horse was given to the boy, and she came to the grooms and the stable boys and commanded them to be careful of the horse, and [to be kept informed of] the news about it [82]: Meanwhile, they heard stories about Rhiannon and her penance. Now Teyrnon Twryf Lliant, because of what he had found out, [began] to listen out for news and continually make inquiries about it - so that he heard more and more complaints from the numerous multitude who had been to the court about how wretched was the fate of Rhiannon and her penance.

This made Teyrnon think and he looked closely at the boy, realising that he had never seen a father and son who had looked more similar in appearance as the boy did to Pwyll Penn Annwfn. He was familiar with Pwyll's appearance as he had been a vassal of his before [83].

After that, anxieties entered into [his mind]: When he got the first chance to talk privately with his wife he asked her if it was right that they should keep the boy - that being the cause of such punishment on a noble woman as fine as Rhiannon, as well as the boy being the son of Pwyll Penn Annwfn. For her part, Teyrnon's wife agreed about sending the boy [back] to Pwyll:.

And that was the course of action they followed. They left it no later than the following day [before] Teyrnon equipped himself as one of three riders - and the boy as the fourth on the horse Teyrnon had given him. And they set out to Arbeth, and it wasn't long until they had arrived there they came to Arbeth. As they came towards the court, they could see Rhiannon sitting beside the mounting block.

When they came up to her she said:. I will carry every one of you to the court. And that is my penance for killing him who was my own son, and for his destruction. They made for the court, and there was very great joy at their arrival. Pwyll himself came [back] from his circuit of Dyfed.

They went into the hall and washed. Pwyll welcomed Teyrnon and they went to sit down. Teyrnon between Pwyll and Rhiannon; the boy between the two companions of Teyrnon above Pwyll. After the end of the meal, as the drinking began they made conversation. In his conversation, Teyrnon related the whole story about the mare and the boy, and how the boy had been in the charge of himself and his wife, and how they had raised him.

When I heard of the misery you were in, I thought it wretched and it saddened me. But I believe,' continued Teyrnon 'that there is no-one in the whole of this hosting that would not believe that the boy is [indeed] the son of Pwyll. Pryderi son of Pwyll Pen Annwfyn [84]. It would be right for him, if he grows up a noble man, that he should repay you.

It would be right for him to remember me and that woman for what we did for him. If he lives [to adulthood], it is even more appropriate that he should continue maintaining you than I. And if it is your counsel, and that of these nobles, seeing as you have raised him up until now, we will give the boy to Pendaran Dyfed to foster from now on. And [both of] you be as friends and foster-fathers to him.

Teyrnon Twryf Lliant and his companions set off back to his country with friendship and contentment. But he did not want anything. After that they remained in their own lands, and Pryderi son of Pwyll Pen Annwfn was brought up with care, in the right way: In that way, they passed one year after the next [88] until the life of Pwyll Penn Annwfn came to an end and he was dead.

And Pryderi ruled the seven cantrefs of Dyfed with prosperity, and in friendship with his countrymen and those around him. Pryderi son of Pwyll Penn Annwfn was on that conquest, it came into his mind to take himself a wife. And thus ends here this Branch of the Mabinogion. Subsequent episodes confirm Arbeth, whatever its precise location, was the focus for a number of folk-beliefs of magical origin.

Such instinctiveness is important, suggesting as it does that he may be under the control of a subconscious i. Otherworldly force see also p. This opening section conforms to a narrative pattern which was almost certainly already familiar to its contemporary audience.

Bromwich described this scenario as The Chase of the White Stag. Typically this begins, as above, with an impulsive desire to hunt on the part of a young king or hero. In such a way the protagonist is drawn into a wilderness setting: Such situations typically preceded a shift of reality into an Otherworld state, or herald a momentous encounter with magical figures involved.

The Chase of the White Stag, as Bromwich points out, was frequently connected to the theme of sovereignty as an animistic force underlying the natural world - which, as we will discuss below p. There and then the golden fawn appears before the company.

As they go off in pursuit, a magical mist descends and the sons of Daire become separated from the rest. Each of the brothers in turn encounter a mysterious, hulking old woman. This might be compared with the sovereignty myth of the Ulaid described on p. The Wild Hunt of Gwyn ap Nudd p.

The Wild Hunt motif, an expression of the turbulent aspect of the animistic faery world, was itself a deeply rooted and perennial feature of North European folklore. An apprehension of this archetype was clearly being evoked at this juncture. K Ford, D. Thomson et al. We might assume this was the default mode of address between unacquainted noblemen in Medieval Wales.

Pwyll also addresses Arawn in this way albeit somewhat sarcastically until he realises that Arawn is of equal if not greater social rank than himself, after which time he switches to the rather more elevated arglwydd 'lord'. Pwyll's initial offence was the driving off of another man's pack: This error was compounded by his failure to recognise a fellow king and show appropriate respect.

Mistakes such as these could be highly dangerous. According to the traditional Celtic socio-legal code, Pwyll was in a compromised position: The 'hundred stags' , the value of which is calculated by the wynebwerth 'honour price' of the injured party, see. We might in turn relate this to the River Arun in Southern England.

Likewise, there are various Eirean- Aran- place names throughout the Gaelic world, where an indigenous tribal grouping, the Erainn are identified. Lugaid son of Daire, in the Irish variant of the Chase of the White Stag mytheme quoted above, is associated with this people. The Otherworld Sojourn , as we might call this scenario, could take a number of forms: This occurs at the instigation of one or more of the Otherworld beings, and often follows a Chase of the White Stag introduction, or some variant thereof.

The purpose of Pwyll's sorjourn in the Indigenous Underworld is to rid Arawn of his 'oppression': A further example of mortal interventions in Otherworldly conflicts of this kind in the Celtic world include Arthur's adjudication of the seasonal dual between Gwynn ap Nudd and Gwerthyfyr ap Greidawl for the hand of Creiyldyd, on the Calends of May. This narrative can be summarised thus: The clan of Ulaid were on the plain of Muirthemne at the feast of Samain.

A flock of beautiful birds alight on a nearby lake. He rounds them up, two by two, until just a single pair remain, linked by a silver chain. It is this pair he has promised his wife. He attempts to trap these birds but they allude him for a prolonged period of time, until he collapses exhausted by a certain standing stone.

They beat him with horsewhips tothe very threshold of his life. He is found by some friends in a comatose state in which he remains for the duration of a year. After this time, he is visited by a stranger who reveals himself as Oengus son of Aed Abrat, [for more about this powerful Otherworld figure see p , ]. The lady in the green cloak returns to meet him.

He is assured that they have never sought his harm, but rather his friendship. In return for 'one day's fighting' against certain Otherworld rivals, he would be allowed and expected to fulfill a tryst with this lady. Like Pwyll also, this encounter carries the appearance of having been contrived and instigated by the Otherworld agency. The measured responses of Arawn 'I know who you are And both were required to visit Underworld regions where they were obliged to lend their assistance as mortal warriors in the magical protagonists' struggles for power.

As we shall see in subsequent chapters, Pwyll and Manawydan become linked in a similar way. The well known myth of the aversion of faery-folk to iron is an example of the ambiguous power-relationship between themselves and the mortal world. The Indigenous Underworld, however, while being mysteriously vulnerable in certain respects, was clearly a source of danger when it came to magical initiatives.

The trade-off of these respective strengths and weaknesses is a frequent theme in fairy tales and popular magical tales from around the world. It was within this tradition that the narrative of much of the Mabinogi would have been understood. The narratives produced by animistic belief systems often focus on the acquisition of power , in its elemental-magical form. The struggle for possession of this substance of power is typically waged by any variety of means: In this episode Pwyll is consummately manipulated by the Underworld agent who thereby obtains his power, which becomes harnessed to the latter's own agenda in the arena of Annuvian politics.

Through an act of impulsive foolishness significantly, as we shall see, involving the dog and the stag , the ironically-named Pwyll see p - had inadvertedly placed himself in a chain of events, which would ultimately result in a mysterious fusion between Dyfed and Annwn. Perhaps the best known example of shape-shifting of this kind i. While laying siege to the latter's castle, he persuaded the magician Merlin to transform his appearance into that of the Cornish lord to enable him to gain entry to the castle and sleep with Igern.

Out of this illicit union the child Arthur is conceived. See also p. More sense can be made of this episode by comparing it to a close analogue to be found in the story of Gawain and the Green Knight. In the Middle English text in which we have the fullest treatment of this legend, the theme of seduction by an Otherworldly hostess plays an integral role in a mysterious power game between Gawain, a young knight of Arthur's court, and an ambivalent magical figure known as the Green Knight.

The action of this tale begins in Arthur's court at the feast of New Year's eve. A tall, green-skinned knight of impressive girth and bearing enters bearing an enormous axe while they are seated at board. He offers the mysterious challenge: Gawain, Arthur's nephew, takes up this challenge to the bravery of the court and strikes the stranger with his own axe, severing his head clean from his shoulders.

But then, to the horror of all, the Green Knight rises to his feet, picks up his head and with an entreaty that Gawain must fulfill that he promised at the 'Green Chapel' one year hence, the stranger disappeared into the night.

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